STATE OF TEXAS INVESTIGATION REPORT
ALONG THE MEXICAN BOARDER
1917 -- - - - - -
REPORT OF INVESTIGATION IN THE STATE OF TEXAS
PARTICULARLY ALONG THE MEXICAN BOARDER
On the traffic in, and consumption of the drug generally known as "Indian Hemp", or Cannabis indica, known in Mexico and States bordering on the Rio Grande River as “Marihuana; sometimes also referred to as “Rosa Maria”, or “Juanita”.
Exhibit “A” Invoice of J. Armengol to Domingo Fernanedez dated Jan. 30, 1917.Exhibits “A” to “H” in the above list are submitted as evidence of the ineffectiveness of Treasury Decision 35719, which was issued September 25, 1915, to prohibit importations of the drug for purposes other than in the preparation of medicine.
Exhibit “B” Invoice of Mexican Products Co. to Domingo Fernandez dated March 7, 1917.
Exhibit “C” Advertisement of D. Fernandez dated Feb. 1, 1917.
Exhibit “D” Price list of Cenobio Garcia, distributed march 1, 1916.
Exhibit “E” Price list of J. Armengol, dated Jan. 25, 1917.
Exhibit “F” Price list of F. Pizzinni, distributed Sept. 20, 1916.
Exhibit “G” Letter from Mexican Products Co. to F. Pizinni, dated March 10,1917.
Exhibit “H” Invoice Manuel Sauvier to J. Armengol, dated Oct. 24, 1913:
Exhibit “I” Photographic copy of report of Inspector (Food and Drug) J.B. Hummer to Chief Bureau of Chemistry, dated Oct. 26, 1915.
Exhibit “J” Photographic copy of letter from Robert T. Neil, Dept. of Justice, to Dr. W.W. Stockberger, Bureau of Plant Industry, dated July 1, 1915, submitting letter with 6 enclosures from Stanley Good, Jr., Deputy Sheriff of El Paso County.
|San Antonio||Del Rio||Brownsville|
“Marihuana, Rosa Maria, (Cannabis indica, L.), Cannabineas; Chanvre indien, France; Hemp, Eng.In Victor Robinson’s “An Essay on Hasheesh” the author states:
"Where found: In the mountains of Thalpam and other parts of the Republic.
"Physical Composition: Leaves palmately divided, dentated, color dark green, odor strong, taste bitter and acrid.
"Chemical composition: According to Schlesinger it contains a bitter substance, chlorophyll, and green resin (Cannabin) coloring matter, gummy extract, extractives albumen, woody fiber and salts.
“According to Personne the active principle of Marihuana is an essential oil formed by the mixture of two carbohydrates, a liquid called cannabin and another solid which is a hydrate of cannabin. The resin of Marihuana is not used in Mexico.
“cannabis is an annual herb and thus endures but one year. Sexually, hemp is dioecious, which means that its staminate and pistillate organs are not on the same plant. When cultivated for its narcotic properties only the flowering tops of the unfertilized female plants are used, and the male plants are eradicated with great care, as it is claimed that a single one can spoil an entire field.Unfortunately for a comparison of the characteristics in growth of the foreign Cannabis with the Mexican Marihuana, this investigation was made at a time when Marihuana was not in existence. It is an annual herb
“Cannabis is from 4 to 12 feet in height; its stem is angular, branching, and covered with matted hairs; its leaves are palmate and therefore roughly resemble an open hand; its leaflets are lance-shaped, possessing margins dentated with saw-like teeth; its flowers are yellow and axillary, the male cluster being a raceme and therefore pedicelled, and the female a spike and consequently sessile or stemless; the five male organs or stamens contain pendulous, double-celled sacs or anthers; the two female organs or pistils have glandular stigmas, the stigma being the spot where fertilization occurs; the fruit is a gray nut, or achene, each containing a single oily seed; the whole plant is covered with a scarcely visible down; the roughness of the leaves and stem is due to the silica, which is a characteristic of the plants of the Moraceae.”
“Mash up 4 ounces of the seeds; mix with a quart of water; sweeten to taste; one-third portion of this emulsion to be taken three times a day.(c) Asthma: Several druggist stated that possibly, once in a great while, some physician might prescribe Cannabis in connection with other herbs to be smoked for asthmatic troubles.
T.D. 35719 - Drugs, dried flowering tops, pistillate plants of Cannabis sativa, linne, importation thereof denied, if intended for other than medicinal purposes (Sec. 11, Food and Drugs Act of 1906).The customs authorities at El Paso, Eagle Pass, San Antonio, Del Rio, and Brownsville, Texas, declared that subsequent to September 25, 1915, when Treasury Decision 35719 went into effect they have had no importations under the name of Indian Hemp, Cannabis indica, Marihuana, or Juanita, at their respective ports. These same customs officials were of the opinion that there were few, if any, importations of the drug previous to the decision in question.
September 25. 1915.
“To collectors and other officials of the customs, the Secretary of Agriculture advises the Department, under date of the 20th instant, that some importations of the drug known as the ‘dried flowering tops of the pistillate plants
-8-of Cannabis sativa linne are being used for purposes other than in the preparation of medicines, and that, unless used in medical preparations this drug is believe to be injurious to health.
“He, therefore, recommends that appropriate instructions be issued to customs officials pursuant to the provisions of Section 11 of the Food and Drugs Act approved June 30, 1906, to refuse admission to the said drug unless it is to be used for medicinal purposes.
“collectors of customs are, therefore, directed to refuse delivery of all consignments of the said drug upon notice from a representative of the Department of Agriculture of the identification thereof in the course of his examination of samples under the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act, unless the importer shall first execute a penal bond conditional that the drug referred to will not be sold or otherwise disposed of for any purpose other than in the preparation of medicines. The penalty of the bond shall be in the amount described in the said Section 11 for the redelivery of food and drug products, namely, the full invoice value, together with the duty accruing on the drug in question.
(sgd) Andrew J. Peters,
During the First World War (for reasons unknown), England cut off our easy access to imported Cannabis Indica from Hindustan. Thus America was forced to turn to its own domestically grown Cannabis Americana for its medical . . more
(Note Off Page Link)
Allaire, Woodward & co., Peoria, Illinois.It is believed that an investigation on the part of the Bureau of these above-mentioned drug house will show that Cannabis indica in the form of the herb is being sold in drug stores in all parts of the country, either in package form or in bulk. Information obtained from druggists shows that physicians never prescribe Cannabis in the form of the herb, nor do the druggists use it in the preparation of medicine, it being sold either in the ounce package or in bulk solely for smoking purposes. It would seem that Allaire, Woodward & co., Parke, Davis & Co., and other houses putting up this product for sale to consumers by retail drug stores, are violating the provision of Treasury Decision 35719, if, as required by the decision, they have filed a bond that the drug will not be disposed of other than in the preparation of medicine. It is suggested that the proper District Chiefs be instructed to cause an investigation to be made to ascertain how much of the herb of Cannabis indica, either in bulk or in package form, has been sold by leading drug manufacturing concerns during the past few years.
Parke, Davis & co., Detroit, Michigan.
Murray & Mickell, chicago, Illinois.
Lehn & ‘Fink, New York City.
Moyer Brothers Drug Co., St. Louis, Missouri
|1/16/17||Jose Trevino||Maud, Oklahoma||1 lbs.||$1.00 (mail order)|
Extra Camp Rock
|2/5/17||Raymundo Alvarez||Wellsville, Penn.||1 lb.||$1.00|
|1/12/17||Reyes Corrales||Carson, Texas||1 lb.||$1.00|
|1/10/17||Santiago Chavez||Douglas, Arizona||1 lb.||$1.00|
|1/08/17||Leon Clemente||Diamondville, Wyo.||1 lb.||$1.00|
|12/26/16||Jose Baracus||Chandler, Arizona||1 lb.||$1.00|
|Juan Reyes||Cheriden, Wyoming||1lbs.||$1.25|
|Anastacio Valensuela||Phoenix, Ariz||2 lb.||$2.50|
|Manuel Ortez||Old Bridge, N.J.||1 lb.||$1.25|
|Jose Esparga||Spokane, Washington||1 lb.||$1.25|
|Raymundo Alvarez||Wesleyville, Penn.||1 lb.||$1.25|
|Nathan Hudson||Phoenix, Ariz.||1 lb.||$1.25|
|4/18/16||Luz Dios||Luling, Texas||2 lbs.||$0.40||$0.80|
|5/28/16||Luz Dios||Luling, Texas||5 lbs.||$0.40||$2.00|
|6/26/16||Cornelio Granado||Wichita, Kansas||2 lbs.||$0.50||$1.00|
|7/8/16||Cornelio Granado||Wichita, Kansas||10 lbs.||$0.50||$5.00|
|7/18/16||C. F. Flores||Floresville, Tex||1 lbs.||$0.40||$0.40|
|7/18/16||M. Alvaraz||Waco, Texas (peddler)||2 lbs.||$0.45||$0.90|
|8/1/16||Albert Mesa||Stockdale, Texas||1 lbs.||$0.40||$0.40|
|8/18/16||Albert Mesa||Stockdale, Texas||1 lbs.||$0.40||$0.40|
|8/22/16||A. Fernandez||Clifton, Arizona||1 lbs.||$0.40||$0.40|
|8/28/16||David Escarndon||Seguin, Texas||1 lbs.||$0.50||$0.50|
|8/31/16||E. Giterriz||Charlotte, Texas||1 lbs.||$0.40||$0.40|
|9/12/16||D. Escandon||Seguin, Texas||2 lbs.||$0.45||$0.90|
|9/19/16||Lus Dios||Luling, Texas||10 lbs.||$0.40||$4.00|
|9/22/16||Luisa La Rosa||Floresville, Texas||0.5 lbs||$0.50||$0.25|
|9/26/16||C.P. Flores||Martindale, Texas||2 lbs.||$0.40||$0.80|
|9/26/16||E. Gutierrez||Charlette, Texas||1 lbs.||$0.40||$0.40|
|10/5/16||P. Rodriguez||Hutchinson, Texas||1 lbs.||$0.40||$0.40|
|10/11/16||E. Gutierrez||Charlette, Texas||1 lbs.||$0.40||$0.40|
|11/15/16||Jose Monsivas||Edmund, Oklahoma||2.5 lbs.||$0.40||$1.00|
|8/23/16||Puente & sons||San Antonio, Texas||5 lbs.||$0.40||$2.00|
|12/13/16||P. Rodriguez||Hutchinson, Kansas||2 lbs.||$0.40||$0.80|
|12/15/16||Cornelio Granado||Wichita, Kansas||5 lbs.||$0.40||$2.00|
|12/15/16||H. Nassani||Lockhardt, Texas||3 lbs.||$0.40||$1.20|
|1/8/17||Cornelio Granado||Wichita, Kansas||6 lbs.||$0.40||$2.40|
|1/9/17||F.A. Chapa||San Antonio, Texas||10 lbs.||$0.50||$5.00|
|Jan. 3, 1916||I.D. Flores||Floresville||5 lbs.||$2.50|
|July 6, 1916||Wm. Kieke||Albuquerque, N.M.||1 lbs.||$0.50|
|July 25, 1916||J.M. Valdez||San Diego, Texas||5 lbs.||$2.50|
|July 27, 1916||N. Saldana||Kingsville, Texas||2 lbs.||$1.00|
|Nov. 6, 1916||I.D. Flores||Floresville, Texas||5 lbs.||$2.50|
|Nov. 8, 1916||I.D. Flores||Floresville, Texas||0.5 lbs.||$0.25|
|Nov. 13, 1916||L.S. Alexander||Victoria, Texas||5 lbs.||$2.50|
|Nov. 15, 1916||Pedro Moreno||Solidad, Texas||2 lbs.||$1.00|
|Nov. 29, 1916||R.S. Garza||McAllen, Texas||0.5 lbs.||$0.25|
|Nov. 29, 1916||Mariano Garcia||Beaumont, Texas||2 lbs.||$1.00|
|Jan. 18, 1917||I.D. Flores||Floresville, Texas||10 lbs.||$5.00|
|Jan. 10, 1917||L.S. Alexander||Victoria, Texas||5.00 lbs.||$2.50|
|Jan. 30, 1917||Domingo Fernandez||San Antonia||10 lbs.||$10.00|
|Daily Drug Co.||Kansas City||2.5 lbs.||$1.00|
|Jose Arredondo||Bracketsville, Texas||1 lbs.||$0.40|
THE CITY OF EL PASO
Mr. R.F. Smith
Paso del Norte Hotel,
I have been employed in various capacities in the Police Department of this city for a period of nine years. In that time I have had various and many opportunities to observe the effect of Marahuana on those who use it. I will say that my experience is that any one under it’s influence is very dangerous and a menace to the community in so far as the user is very prone to start trouble, seems to be insensible to pain and shows marked bravery when confronted with real danger.
I could go into length detail but in our conversation you stated that you merely wanted my opinion as to whether or not a user of Marahuana would be considered as dangerous to those coming in contact with the user. Very truly yours,
Sergt. Of Police
THE CITY OF EL PASO
Mr. R.F. Smith
Paso del Norte Hotel,
El Paso, Texas
I have not had any great experience with Marahuana. However while acting as a mounted man on three different occasions, I had to arrest men, whom those who claimed to know, said were under the influence of the weed marahuana. They gave me no little trouble in making the arrests and one of them I drew my pistol to protect myself from a knife which he had and he evidence absolutely no fear but luckily I was able to knock him down without the necessity of shooting him. Yours very truly,
Capt. Of Police
THE CITY OF EL PASO
Mr. R.F. Smith
Paso del Norte Hotel,
El Paso, Texas
I take pleasure in writing a few lines in reference to the Marahuana dope, as I call it, for I can safely say it is a dope from the effects it has on those who use it.
I have seen many cases here on the frontier, especially among the mexicans. I have seen it used up in New Mexico and also along the border at Nogales, Arizona. I have seen more here than any place and in fact, the first I ever saw growing, was here. I can say that the effect is the same in all places. It is a powerful stuff. It is surprising the strength that a human has when under the influence and the confidence he has regardless of the class of trouble. I do hope the United States Government will do something to suppress the sale and use of the Marahuana. It certainly will prove a blessing to humanity.
I highly recommend this stuff to the Mexican Armies in Mexico, thought they are too wise to use it now as their tendency is to loot and hunt, instead of fight. Hence they endeavor to suppress it, yet the war is still on. Yours respectfully
B. J. Zabriskie
Chief of Police
THE CITY OF EL PASO
Mr. Reginald F. Smith
Dear Sir: - With reference to our conversation about the use of Marahuana, will state that I have had an excellent opportunity to see the effects of the use of this weed on the user’s.
In the capacity of Police Captain, I have had almost daily experience with the users of for the reason that when they are addicted to the use they become very violent, especially when they become angry and will attack an officer even if a gun is drawn on him, they seem to have no fear, I have also noted that when under the influence of this weed they have abnormal strength and that it will take several men to handle one man where under ordinary circumstances one man could handle him with ease.
Until an ordinance was passed in El Paso, making a minimum fine of $25.oo to have Marahuana in any ones possession we had a great deal of trouble, but since the passage of this ordinance the cases of violent men have become more isolated.
I am sure if the Government will do something to suppress the sale or use of this Narcotic it will not only be a great help to this Department but to the HUMAN RACE in general along the Boarder. Yours very truly;
Captain of Police.
THE CITY OF EL PASO
Mr. R .F. Smith
C/o Gen’l Delivery
Your request of the 9th inst. that I give you a little data relative to Marahuana reached me this morning. I could go into lengthy detail on the weed; it’s peculiarities, and it’s effect on the user but I presume that that will not be necessary, however will say that I have seen many instances during my term as Captain of Police in this city and San Antonio Texas, where crimes were committed that I am positive were due to the fact that the user was under the influence of Marahuana and not in his right mind. To sum the thing up it is very peculiar in effect in that it produces apparently a lust for-blood. The user seems insensible to pain and shows almost superhuman strength when detained or hindered from doing what ever they are attempting to do.
Yours very truly
J. E. Stowe Capt. Of Detectives.
“First. A tax on the drugs specified, based upon some unit of weight, such tax to be denoted by stamps, affixed to original packages or containers, and that the list of proscribed drugs be extended to include chloral0hydrate and cannabis indica, and other drugs having the same general properties with a clear definition of ‘substitutes’ and ‘synthetic substitutes’ for such drugs.”It is further recommended that the Governors of the various States be advised of the fact that Cannabis indica is being used for smoking purposes, and that a suggestion be made to them to cause legislation to be enacted prohibiting the sale or having in possession of Cannabis indica in bulk or in package form within their respective States. Also that sale of the exact be permitted only upon a physician’s prescription.
OR THE GOLDEN WONDERS OF JUNK SCIENCE:
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